Views:427 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-11-27 Origin:Site
The middle ear is a part of the ear, which is responsible for the transmission and amplification of sound.
The middle ear mainly consists of auditory ossicles. There is a eustachian tube on the front wall of the middle ear, which is leading to the nasopharynx and is a natural pipe connecting the middle ear and the atmosphere. Once this pipe is blocked, it will lead to stuffy middle ear or effusion in the middle ear. This is why sometimes a cold (Nasal mucosa swelling may block the eustachian tube when catching a cold) can cause otitis media.
Middle ear disease can produce ear discomfort, pain, ear fullness, occlusion effect, hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and other symptoms, which can be caused by trauma, infection, or middle ear pressure change brought by Eustachian tube obstruction. If infection gives rise to it, there are still fever, general fatigue and other symptoms. Otoscope ear speculum, Lempert endaural speculum and ear specula disperser can be applied to check middle ear diseases.
Perforation of tympanic membrane is common, usually caused by a variety of factors, such as otitis media, explosion or sound wave impact and mechanical perforation (i.e. trauma). Patients often feel severe pain in the ear and sometimes the ear will bleed or purulent. Perforation of the tympanic membrane can cause mild to moderate conductive hearing loss. In many cases, small tympanic membrane perforation can heal without treatment and large perforation needs repair.
The etiology of otitis media is usually inflammation and middle ear effusion. Otitis media is common, especially in children. Its manifestations are ear pain (aggravating at night), fever, aversion to cold, red or yellow urine, constipation of stool, hypoacusis, etc.
The basic principle of otitis media is that the air circulation of the eustachian tube in the middle ear cavity is blocked and the drainage is not smooth. Usually, when people swallow or yawn, the eustachian tube will open automatically. Because the eustachian tube of children is horizontal rather than downward, it may not open when children swallow or yawn. With the help of gravity, the eustachian tube of adults can open naturally.
Acute suppurative otitis media is more common in infants and young children clinically. The main reason is that the eustachian tube of children is shorter, thicker and straighter than that of adults. Children with cold and other respiratory diseases are easy to cause otopharyngeal tube inflammation, bacteria entering the middle ear and getting sick. In addition, when children eat, coughing and vomiting, food is easy to enter the middle ear from the eustachian tube and produce inflammation. Acute suppurative otitis media should be treated in time. Auxiliary instruments include Hartmann aural speculum, Gruber ear speculum and other different aural speculum types.
If acute suppurative otitis media can not be cured in time, those who delay for more than six weeks will become chronic suppurative otitis media. The main symptoms are purulence, tinnitus, earache, headache, dizziness, etc.
If otitis media is not treated in time, it will continue to spread to the mastoid process. Mastoid process is a bone like protuberance directly behind the auricle. If bacteria infect mastoid process, it will cause mastoiditis.
Cholesteatoma is an epithelial cyst that grows in the upper part of the tympanic membrane and invades the middle ear cavity. If it is untreated, it may invade the auditory ossicles. This disease is often associated with other middle ear diseases (such as otitis media or mastoiditis).
Otosclerosis is caused by calcification and ossification of ossicles, which is a genetic disease. Such patients are usually more female than male. It often occurs in youth and its early symptoms are deafness or tinnitus. Otosclerosis can lead to conduction deafness ranging from mild to severe.
Of course, medical treatment must be sought in time for serious middle ear disease.
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