Views:401 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-11-01 Origin:Site
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world, which is after cataracts. However, glaucoma blindness cannot be cured. So early detection and treatment are essential to prevent glaucoma from developing into blindness.
The treatment principle of glaucoma is to reduce the patient's intraocular pressure. And the main treatment methods include eye drops, oral hypotensive drugs, laser treatment, and surgery. Surgical treatment is one of the most important treatment methods, for which high-quality and professional eye surgery tools are indispensable, such as: iris-eye scissors, eye corneal scissors, needle holder instrument, ophthalmic forceps, and etc..
In the following part, let us have a look at the common symptoms of glaucoma. In fact, the symptoms and signs of glaucoma vary with different types and severity.
Asymptomatic in the early stage; When the disease progresses to a certain extent, symptoms such as blurred vision, headache, and eye swelling will appear.
Asymptomatic in the early stage. Once the iris blocks the angle of the chamber and the aqueous humor cannot flow out, symptoms such as eye swelling, headache, nausea, and foggy vision will occur.
If it occurs in infants, the different eye pressure may result in different eye sizes; If it occurs in children, the early symptoms are usually vision loss.
There are almost no symptoms in the early stage, but the intraocular pressure may fluctuate. With 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring, the maximum intraocular pressure of typical open-angle glaucoma can exceed 30mmHg, with fluctuations greater than 10 mmHg.
As the disease progresses, patients may experience blurred vision, eye swelling and headaches.
At the late stage, the visual field of the patients’ eyes is reduced, and night blindness may occur, but the central vision is generally good. The patient feels as if seeing things through a straw, which is called "tubular visual field".
It can be divided into two clinical phenotypes: acute and chronic.
The affected eye has structural features such as shallow anterior chamber, narrow angle, and short axial axis, but glaucoma has not yet occurred.
At the beginning, the patient may have slight eye swelling, headache, nausea, foggy vision during the day, and rainbow vision at night when looking at the lights, that is, seeing a multi-colored halo.
Aura (minor seizure): The patient feels that the symptoms are mild, with only mild eye swelling, and the visual impact is not obvious, but there is foggy and rainbow vision. The intraocular pressure is generally 30-50 mmHg.
Acute grand seizure: Obvious eye pain, headache, nausea and vomiting; High vision loss, only light perception; Eyeballs are as hard as rocks, and intraocular pressure is generally above 50 mmHg, even more than 80 mmHg.
Intermittent Remission Period
The patient's intraocular pressure decreased after timely treatment, and his condition was temporarily relieved. This period can last from several days to one to two years.
Chronic Progression Stage
Those who fail to control the attack period, or who are in intermittent remission, or even in the preclinical period, who have long-term instillation of miotics due to unwillingness to surgical treatment, may develop into a chronic progression stage. Vision is normal in the early stage, but the optic nerve is damaged. If it is not treated in time, the visual field will gradually shrink as the disease progresses and eventually become completely blind.
This type glaucoma progresses slowly. In addition to blurred vision and visual field defects, patients often lack conscious symptoms and are easily misdiagnosed.
In children with onset before 2 to 3 years old, increased intraocular pressure often leads to enlarged eyeballs.
The patient's eyes are photophobic, tearful, and blepharospasm. When children cry and irritate, they like to bury their heads to avoid the painful stimulation of the light source.
In children with onset after 3 years of age, the eyeballs usually do not enlarge, and they often show increased intraocular pressure and progressive optic nerve damage.
Many risk factors for glaucoma cannot be controlled, such as age, family genetic history, etc., so we must pay more attention to some daily prevention. Regular eye examinations; Regular and moderate exercise; Regular use of eye drops for lowering intraocular pressure as prescribed by doctors; Wear goggles when working with machines or high-speed ball sports to prevent eye injury; Patients with diabetes or hypertension should actively treat the primary disease.
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