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Otology: External, Middle & Inner Ear

Views:431     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2020-11-30      Origin:Site

The human ear can be divided into three parts, the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.

 

 

1. Composition and Function of Human Ear

The external ear includes the auricle, the external auditory meatus and the vessels, nerves and lymph of the external ear. The middle ear consists of four parts, tympanum, eustachian tube, tympanum, tympanic sinus and mastoid. The inner ear is divided into three parts: semicircular canal, vestibule and cochlea.

 

The human ear has two important functions. One involves the function of the auditory system. The other is balance function, which is related to vestibular system. The balance of human body mainly depends on proprioception and vestibular system. Except for the outer ear, the rest of the human ear is in the skull.

 

 

2. Common Ear Diseases

(1) Common Diseases of External Ear

A. Ceruminal Impaction

The common cause of hearing loss is that ear wax block the ear canal. When the ear wax accumulates to a certain extent and forms embolus in the ear, the ear canal can be completely sealed, and the sound wave can not be introduced. Mild simple conductive hearing loss will be produced in severe cases. It is usually taken out by medical staff and sometimes it is softened with ear drops for the treatment of ear wax blockage.

 

B. Inflammation of the external ear

Inflammation of the external ear is infection, inflammation ormildewof the external ear or ear canal. Inflammation of the external ear usually does not cause deafness, but mild conductive hearing loss occurs when swelling blocks the ear canal. The treatment of external ear inflammation is the application of antibiotics and antibiotic ear drops. It should be noted that ear inflammation is often infectious. The instruments and ear speculum (including metal ear speculum, ear specula disperser, etc.) utilized in the treatment of patients with external ear inflammation need to be thoroughly disinfected, which can not be ignored.

 

C. Congenital Atresia of External Ear

Congenital atresia of the external ear refers to the congenital malformation of the auricle or auditory canal, or even no auricle or auditory canal at all. There is usually no lesion in the inner ear in such patients, so deafness is mostly conductive rather than sensorineural, because sound cannot pass through the outer and middle ear normally. Surgical reconstruction of the external ear, auditory canal or ossicles is the treatment for this disease.

 

incision and drainage tray instruments


(2) Common Diseases of Middle Ear

A. Perforation of Tympanic Membrane

 

B. Otitis Media

The usual development of otitis media is as follows. Different aural speculum types can be applied for examination, such as disposable ear speculum and specula for otoscope.

 

 Obstruction of eustachian tube.

 

 Uneven pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane.

 

 A vacuum is formed in the middle ear cavity.

 

 Body fluid flows into the middle ear cavity.

 

 Body fluids may be infected by viruses and bacteria.

 

⑥ If not treated, the tympanic membrane will be perforated by the accumulation of infection in the middle ear.

 

C. Mastoiditis

 

D. Cholesteatoma

 

E. Otosclerosis

 

(3) Common Diseases of Inner Ear

A. Congenital / Hereditary Deafness

Congenital deafness occurs at birth. Hereditary deafness is caused by chromosomal abnormality and belongs to familial hereditary disease. The non-hereditary congenital deafness is caused by many factors. For example, German measles and rubella during pregnancy can lead to deafness in children. In addition, low birth weight and premature birth can also cause deafness at birth.

 

B. Noise Deafness

Noise-induced deafness is directly caused by noise pollution, or due to long-term exposure to strong noise (such as factories, casting yards, railway switchyard), or due to one-time exposure to extremely strong impulse noise (such as firecrackers, gunfire, explosion, etc.).

 

C. Meniere's Disease

Deafness caused by Meniere's syndrome is a kind of low frequency sensorineural hearing loss with good and bad conditions.

 

D. Presbycusis

Presbycusis refers to age-related sensorineural hearing loss.

 

E. Drug Toxic Deafness

At present, the side effects of some drugs used in the market can damage the cochlear auditory nervous system, because these drugs can producetoxicityto the ear, known as ototoxic drugs, including ordinary aspirin (which can cause temporary deafness and tinnitus).

 

F. Sensorineural Hearing Loss

This kind of deafness, also known as nerve deafness, is permanent damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve. It is generally believed that it is caused by the long-term accumulation of cochlear damage, which is not cured for life. Damage to the inner ear is rarely restored to its original state by medicine and surgical treatment. Most patients can wear hearing aids or cochlear implants to solve the problem of hearing loss, and the effect is very good.

 

Ear disease leads to physical and mental pain, affecting hearing, so it is very necessary to understand and do a good job in advance of prevention.

 

Belle Healthcare Technology Co, Ltd. provides high quality micro instruments, disposable instruments, ENT instruments and consumable products, including surgical needle holder, different types of nasal cannulas, incision and drainage tray instruments, intraocular scissors and so on.


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