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What Is Glaucoma?

Views: 407     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2020-10-31      Origin: Site

Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by atrophy and depression of the optic papilla, visual field defects, and decreased vision.


Pathological increased intraocular pressure and insufficient blood supply to the optic nerve are the primary risk factors for its onset. The tolerance of the optic nerve to pressure damage is also related to the occurrence and development of glaucoma. Obstruction of any link in the aqueous humor circulation can lead to pathological changes caused by elevated intraocular pressure, but some patients also present with normal intraocular pressure glaucoma.



Cause of Glaucoma


Pathological increase in intraocular pressure is the main risk factor for glaucoma. Increased intraocular pressure leads to optic nerve damage through mechanical compression and optic nerve ischemia. The longer the increase in intraocular pressure lasts, the more severe the visual function damage. The reason for the increased intraocular pressure in glaucoma is that the dynamic balance of aqueous humor circulation is disrupted. A few are due to excessive secretion of aqueous humor, but most of them have obstacles to the outflow of aqueous humor, such as narrow or even closed anterior chamber angle, hardening of the trabeculae, etc.


Elevated intraocular pressure is not the only risk factor for the onset of glaucoma. Some patients with normal intraocular pressure have typical glaucoma pathological changes, and some patients with glaucoma have their intraocular pressure under control, but the optic nerve damage is still progressing, indicating that there are other factors that related to the pathogenesis of glaucoma, such as the anatomical variation of the eyeball, age, race, family history, myopia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, abnormal blood rheology, and etc.


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The Risk of Glaucoma


Reduced Visual Field


Glaucoma can lead to a gradual narrowing of the field of vision, the periphery gradually lost, and finally only a small part of the center can be seen, which is called "tubular vision".



Irreversible Blindness


It’s confirmed that modern medicine has not been able to successfully restore and regenerate the nerves. Therefore, optic nerve damage and visual field damage caused by glaucoma cannot be recovered.


Strong Concealment


In some patients with glaucoma, the intraocular pressure gradually increases with no symptoms or mild eye swelling. By the time it is discovered, there has been an irreversible glaucoma visual field defect.


Easy To Misdiagnosis


In the acute attack of glaucoma, patients will have eye pain, accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms. So it is easily been regarded as the emergency department of Gastroenterology, neurology, etc., leading to misdiagnosis.



Glaucoma Treatment Surgery and Ophthalmic Instrument Set Needed


Establish a New Extraocular Drainage Surgery

This method includes sclerectomy, trabeculectomy, non-penetrating trabeculectomy, and intraocular silicone tube implantation. Commonly used eye equipment lists include corneal scissors, micro tweezers, iris scissors, iris restorer, micro needle holder, eyelid retractor, micro scissors, cautery, flushing needle, iris cutter, and corneal forceps etc.

It’s used for middle and late glaucoma and refractory glaucoma.



Surgery To Relieve Pupil Block


It includes peripheral iridectomy and laser iridotomy with iris-eye scissors, medical suture scissors and microsurgery needle holder. Generally used in treatment of early angle closure glaucoma.



Surgery To Reduce Aqueous Humor


It includes ciliary body cryosurgery, ciliary body photocoagulation, etc. It is mostly used for late-stage glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma, refractory glaucoma that has been operated on many times after eye trauma, and glaucoma after vitreous surgery.




Surgery To Dredge The Original Aqueous Humor


It includes angle incision, external trabeculectomy, and angle separation anterior chamber angioplasty. Generally used for congenital glaucoma, no anterior chamber after glaucoma surgery.



Combined Operation That Relieves Multiple Blocks At One Time


Including combined glaucoma and cataract surgery, combined surgery for refractory glaucoma. Generally used for malignant glaucoma, secondary glaucoma after lens dislocation, etc.



Ophthalmic Instrument Set Needed For Glaucoma Surgery


Ophthalmic instrument set needed for glaucoma surgery: flushing needle, ophthalmic anterior chamber keratotomy, iris repositioner, iris reduction separator, ocular cauterization hemostatic device, microscopic eye scissors, medical scissors, trabecular scissors, suture ligation forceps, ophthalmic trabeculectomy knife, eye gauge, and etc.